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Demographic Data Elements

This KnowledgeBase archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.

Student Demographics

Data ElementPossible Indicators
EnrollmentThe number of students in the school; students in special programs (Title I, special education, Talented & Gifted, etc.) ethnicity; or other meaningful categories.

Daily Attendance


Number of students attending school by grade, grade span, whole school, or other enrollment category. The percent of students tardy for classes.
Mobility/StabilityThe mobility rate is the percent of children who move in and out of a school during a year. The stability rate refers to the percent of students who remain in the same building for the entire year.

Socioeconomic Status (SES)


Percent of students receiving free and reduced lunch, parents' education level, parents' household income, unemployment rates in the attendance area, etc.
Student BehaviorThe number or percentage of discipline referrals or incidents, the number or percentage of student suspensions and expulsions; frequency of gang-related, substance abuse, or other at risk behavior.
Limited English ProficiencyThe percent of students with limited English proficiency. The percent of families who speak English as a second language.


Student Achievement

Data ElementPossible Indicators
Academic PerformanceState and local test results (norm-referenced or criterion referenced tests); levels of proficiency attained, progress on desired outcomes, results of performance assessments or student portfolios; examples of student work,; classroom assessments; grades.
Other Performance-based DataInformation from portfolios, exhibits, performance assessments that describe student standards-based achievement.
Multi-year TrendsLongitudinal academic performance data.
Completion RatesPromotion/graduation rate, retention rates, percent of dropouts.
Comparative DataPerformance of disadvantaged students against all other meaningful categories or students in the school or in the district; comparison of performance of students in various ethnic or programmatic subgroups (i.e., students with learning disabilities, limited English speakers, migratory students, etc.)
Post SecondaryNumber or percent of students attending and/or completing post secondary schools, number or percent of students accepted in the armed services.


An Idea Book on Planning, Vol. I, Implementing Schoolwide Programs, U.S. Department of Education

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