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Classroom Assessment KnowledgeBase

This KnowledgeBase archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.

The Classroom Assessment KnowledgeBase is an online resource for state departments of education to use as part of their professional development efforts with districts and schools. Organized around five elements, it brings together concepts, how-to guidance, tools, and resources about classroom assessment.

Task 2: Identify What Students Need to Know and Be Able to Do

Guideline: Formative assessments should be based on what students must know so they understand what is expected of them and how they can help to close gaps in their learning. Subject matter expectations should be enumerated in measurable objectives related to the assessment.


Shopping List of Useful Verbs

This resource offers a categorized "shopping list" of useful verbs to assist in making objectives more precise.

Writing Objectives

This Penn State University resource offers a model for writing objectives addressing audience, behavior, condition, and degree of mastery. Though intended for higher education, the model is adaptable for use by K-12 teachers. The resource also provides examples of well-written objectives and identifies problems encountered when writing objectives.

Aligning Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment

This link to Carnegie Mellon University's Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence and Educational Innovation why assessments, learning objectives, and instructional strategies be aligned.

Bloom's Taxonomy

This document provides links to websites offering resources on Bloom's Taxonomy.

Goals, Objectives, and Activities

This document summarizes the key elements of well-written goals, objectives, and activities. The document includes a link to the Performance Objectives Worksheet, which is a guide on writing objectives.

The contents of this website were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education and are intended for general reference purposes only. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education or the Center, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. Some resources on this site require Adobe Acrobat Reader. This website archive includes content and external links that were accurate and relevant as of September 30, 2019.